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FORTE 3 ARMAZENS GERAIS LTDA makes partnerships and financial contributions to mining companies through one of the group's companies, helping some mining companies in their financial and commercial management.

Manganese is the 12th most abundant chemical element in the earth's crust and its main ores are pyrolusite and rhodochrosite. The largest deposits are located in South Africa, Brazil, Ukraine, Australia, India, China and Gabon.

In Brazil, the ore is extracted mainly in the states of Pará, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul. This has played an important role in the development of several steel manufacturing processes, as it is the fourth most used metal in the world, comes right after iron, aluminum and copper and is present in our routine.

It is widely used in cars and in civil construction, so about 90% of all manganese consumed today goes to steel mills.

It is common to use metal alloys of this element in the steel industry, which is also used as a moderate deoxidizer, it is not recyclable and has no economic substitute, due to its relatively low price, in addition to technical benefits, the use of another substance is not viable.



FORTE 3 ARMAZENS GERAIS LTDA makes partnerships and financial contributions to mining companies through one of the group's companies, helping some mining companies in their financial and commercial management.

Iron ores are rocks from which metallic iron can be obtained economically. Iron is generally found in the form of oxides, such as magnetite and hematite, or as a carbonate, siderite.

world production

The extraction of iron ore is an industry present in most countries. The world's ten largest producers of iron ore (2006 data[1]) are China, Brazil,[2] Australia, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Iran, Canada and the United States, the United Kingdom at the time of the first and second Industrial Revolutions, between 1760 and 1910, it was one of the largest producers of iron ore, but the deposits began to be depleted, but not before the 1960s.[3]

World consumption of iron ore grows by about 11% a year, and the biggest consumers are China, Japan, Korea, the United States and the European Union.

Mining methods vary depending on the type of ore. The four main ones, from the point of view of economic interest, are magnetite, titanomagnetite, hematite and pisolite.



Niobium is a chemical element, symbol Nb, atomic number 41 (41 protons and 41 electrons) and atomic mass 92.9 u. It is a transition element belonging to group 5 (formerly called 5B) of the periodic classification of elements. The name derives from the Greek goddess Niobe, daughter of Dione and Tantalus — the latter, in turn, named another element of group 5, tantalum.[1] It is mainly used in alloy steel for the production of fluid-conducting tubes. Under normal conditions it is solid. It was discovered in 1801 by the Englishman Charles Hatchett.[2]

Niobium has similar physical and chemical properties to the chemical element tantalum and therefore both are difficult to distinguish. In 1801, the English chemist Charles Hatchett reported the discovery of a material similar to tantalum and named it columbium. In 1809, English chemist William Hyde Wollaston erroneously concluded that tantalum and columbium were identical. In 1846, German chemist Heinrich Rose established that tantalum ores contained a second element which he named niobium. Between 1864 and 1865, it became clear that "niobium" and "columbium" were two names for the same element, so for almost a century these terms were used interchangeably. Niobium was officially recognized as a chemical element in 1949, but the term columbium is still used in American metallurgy.

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Tantalum (preferred form in Portugal and Brazil) or tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73 (73 protons and 73 electrons), symbol Ta with atomic mass 181 u, which is located in group 5 (previously called VB) of the periodic classification of elements. It is a rare transition metal, greyish blue, hard, which has a metallic luster, a grayish color and resists corrosion very well. At room temperature, tantalum is in a solid state.

It is found in the mineral tantalite. Physiologically inert, so that, among its many applications, it can be used for the manufacture of surgical instruments and implants.

It was discovered in 1802 by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg in minerals from Sweden and Finland and isolated by Jons Berzelius in 1820.



Graphene is one of the crystalline forms of carbon,[1] as are diamond, graphite, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. The term graphene was proposed as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm.[2][3] It was he who described carbon sheets in 1962.[4]

When of high quality, it is usually very strong, light, almost transparent, an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. It is the strongest material ever found, consisting of a flat sheet of carbon atoms densely packed into a two-dimensional grid.[5] It is an ingredient for graphite materials of other dimensions, such as 0D fullerenes, 1D nanotubes or 3D graphite.[5]

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Gold (from the Latin aurum, "bright") is a chemical element (symbol Au) with atomic number 79 (79 protons and 79 electrons) that is situated in group 11 (formerly called IB) of the periodic table, and of atomic mass 197. u. , In nature, gold is produced from the collision of two neutron stars.

 Gold is widely used in jewelry, industry and electronics, as well as a store of value.

24K gold (24 carats) is pure gold, also called fine gold or thousand gold, and is made up of 24 parts of gold, out of a total of 24 parts, equivalent to 99.9% gold.

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Diamond is a crystal in an allotropic form of carbon, of chemical formula C. It is the stable triangular form of carbon at pressures above 6 GPa (60 kbar). Marketed as precious stones, diamonds have a high added value. Diamond usually crystallizes with a cubic structure and can be synthesized industrially. Another form of diamond crystallization is hexagonal, less common in nature and with lower hardness (9.5 on the Mohs scale). 

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Emerald is a stone that originates from Beryl, just like other gemstones. However, it is considered the noblest stone of its group. These stones arise from physical processes that occur in nature.

The emerald is one of the most coveted gemstones in the world and has been part of our history since the dawn of civilization. With its beautiful and deep green, the emerald has become the stone of the month of May, the gem of love and a symbol for graduation rings of various courses. So, let's get to know a little more about this gem capable of creating incredible jewels.



A ruby is a pink to blood-red gemstone, a variety of mineral corundum (aluminum oxide). Other gem-quality varieties of corundum are called sapphires. Ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems, along with amethyst, sapphire, emerald and diamond. The word ruby comes from "ruber", Latin for red.

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Alexandrite or alexandrite is a variety of the mineral chrysoberyl and a highly prized and highly valued gemstone. It changes color according to the light: in natural light it is usually olive green, but in incandescent light, from filament and fire lamps, it takes on a red color. Its color change and relative scarcity is due to an extremely rare combination of minerals, including titanium, iron, and chromium. Chrysoberyl can sometimes contain tiny, parallel needle-like inclusions that reflect a rippling silvery light (chatassociation effect) when cut into cabochons.

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